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Brief Contents

     Contents ix

     Preface xix

   1 Introducing Biological Psychology 2

   2 The Anatomy and Evolution of the Nervous System
                                                                                  26

   3 Cells of the Nervous System 60

   4 Psychopharmacology 94

   5 Genetics and the Development of the Human Brain
                                                                                124

   6 Vision 154

   7 Nonvisual Sensation and Perception 188

   8 Movement 224

   9 Temperature Regulation, Thirst, and Hunger 254

  10 Sexual Behavior 284

  11 Sleep and Waking 312

  12 Learning and Memory 340

  13 Lateralization, Language, and Intelligence 374

  14 Emotion, Reward, Aggression, and Stress 402

  15 Neurological Disorders 430

  16 Psychological Disorders 456

  

   References R-1

   Name Index I-1

   Subject Index I-10

 

Chapter-by Chapter Contents

           ix

           Preface xix

          1 Introducing Biological Psychology 2

     Biological Psychology as an Interdisciplinary Field 3

     Historical Highlights in Biological Psychology 3

                    INTERIM SUMMARY 1.1 7

     Research Methods in Biological Psychology 8

                     Histology 8
                     Autopsy 9
                     Imaging 9

        NEW DIRECTIONS Will Imaging Technologies Allow Us to “Read” People’s Minds? 12

                    Recording 1
                    Brain Stimulation 15
                    Lesion 16
                    Biochemical Methods 17

        WHY DOES THIS MATTER? Nature versus Nurture 18

                    Genetic Methods 18
                    Stem Cells 19

                    INTERIM SUMMARY 1.2 20

     Research Ethics 21

                    Human Participants Guidelines 22

        WHY DOES THIS MATTER? The Death of Jesse Gelsinger 22

                    Animal Subjects Guidelines 23
                    Emerging Issues in Research Ethics 23

                    INTERIM SUMMARY 1.3 25

                   Chapter Review Thought Questions Key Terms 25

     2 The Anatomy and Evolution of the

     Nervous System 26

     Anatomical Directions and Planes of Section 27

     Protecting and Supplying the Nervous System 29

                    Meninges 29
                    Cerebrospinal Fluid 30
                    Blood Supply 31

          INTERIM SUMMARY 2.1 32

     The Central Nervous System 33

                    The Spinal Cord 33
                    The Hindbrain 35
                    The Midbrain 37
                    The Forebrain 38

              INTERIM SUMMARY 2.2 46

      The Peripheral Nervous System 47

                    The Cranial Nerves 47
                    The Spinal Nerves 48
                    The Autonomic Nervous System 49

            INTERIM SUMMARY 2.3 52

      Evolution of the Human Brain and Nervous System 53

                    Natural Selection and Evolution 53

          WHY DOES THIS MATTER? Is Evolution Still Shaping Human Beings? 53

                    Evolution of the Nervous System 54

          WHY DOES THIS MATTER? Do Animals Have Minds? 55

                    Evolution of the Human Brain 55

           INTERIM SUMMARY 2.4 57

           NEW DIRECTIONS Neuroscientists Search for Self-Awareness in the Brain 58

                    Chapter Review Thought Questions 58
                    Key Terms 59

     3 Cells of the Nervous System 60

       Neurons and Glia 61

                    The Structure of Neurons 61

            WHY DOES THIS MATTER? The Connection Between Neurofibrillary

                    Tangles and Amyloid in Alzheimer’s Disease 64

                    Structural Variations in Neurons 68

                    Functional Variations in Neurons 68

                    Glia 68

             INTERIM SUMMARY 3.1 72

       The Generation of the Action Potential 73

                   The Ionic Composition of the Intracellular and Extracellular Fluids 73

                   The Movement of Ions 74

                   The Resting Potential 76

           WHY DOES THIS MATTER? Lethal Injection 76

                   The Action Potential 77

       The Propagation of the Action Potential 79

             INTERIM SUMMARY 3.2 81

       The Synapse 82

                   Electrical Synapses 83

                   Chemical Synapses 84

            NEW DIRECTIONS Tetanus and the Lack of Inhibition 90

       Neuromodulation 91

            INTERIM SUMMARY 3.3 92

                    Chapter Review Thought Questions Key Terms 93

     4 Psychopharmacology 94

       Neurotransmitters, Neuromodulators, and
       Neurohormones 95

                    Identifying Neurotransmitters 95

                    Types of Neurotransmitters 96

            WHY DOES THIS MATTER? Genes and Addiction to Nicotine 98

            INTERIM SUMMARY 4.1 103

       Drug Actions at the Synapse 105

                    Agonists and Antagonists 105

                    Neurotransmitter Production 105

                    Neurotransmitter Storage 105

                    Neurotransmitter Release 105

                    Receptor Effects 106

                    Reuptake Effects and Enzymatic Degradation 107

       Basic Principles of Drug Effects 108

                    Administration of Drugs 108

                    Individual Differences in Response 109

                    Placebo Effects 109

                    Tolerance and Withdrawal 110

             WHY DOES THIS MATTER? The Hazards of Designer Drugs 111

                    Addiction 111

            NEW DIRECTIONS Dopamine Agonists,

                    Parkinson’s Disease, and Addictive Behaviors 112

            INTERIM SUMMARY 4.2 113

       Effects of Psychoactive Drugs 113

                     Stimulants 113

                     Opiates 116

                     Marijuana 117

            WHY DOES THIS MATTER? Medical Marijuana 119

                     Other Hallucinogens 120

                     Alcohol 121

                     St. John’s Wort 121

            INTERIM SUMMARY 4.3 122

                    Chapter Review Thought Questions Key Terms 123

     5 Genetics and the Development of the Human
               Brain 124

        Genetics and Behavior 125

                    From Genes to Proteins 126

                    Sources of Genetic Diversity 126

              WHY DOES THIS MATTER? A Growing Need for Genetics Counselors 129

                    The Roles of Heredity and Environment 130

              INTERIM SUMMARY 5.1 132

       Development 133

                    Growth and Differentiation of the Nervous System 133

                    Effect of Experience on Development 141

                    Disorders of Brain Development 145

                    Redevelopment in Response to Damage 147

                    The Adult Nervous System 148

             NEW DIRECTIONS Can We Stop the Aging Process? 149

            WHY DOES THIS MATTER? Treating Alzheimer’s Disease 151

            INTERIM SUMMARY 5.2 152

                     Chapter Review Thought Questions Key Terms 153

 

     6 Vision 154

       Characteristics of Light 155

                     The Advantages of Light as a Stimulus 155

                     The Electromagnetic Spectrum 156

                     Absorption, Reflection, and Refraction 156

              INTERIM SUMMARY 6.1 157

        The Structures and Functions of the Visual System
                                                                               158

                     Protecting the Eye 158

                    WHY DOES THIS MATTER? Why Do We Cry? 158

                    The Anatomy of the Eye 159

                    The Layered Organization of the Retina 161

                    Photoreceptors 162

                    Differences Between Rods and Cones 164

                    Processing by Retinal Interneurons 165

                    Optic Nerve Connections 169

                    The Striate Cortex 171

                    Visual Analysis Beyond the Striate Cortex 173

             INTERIM SUMMARY 6.2 175

       Visual Perception 176

                    Hierarchies 176

                    Spatial Frequencies 177

                    The Perception of Depth 178

                    Coding Color 179

            WHY DOES THIS MATTER? Why Girls Like Pink 181

       The Development of the Visual System 182

       Disorders of the Visual System 183

                   Amblyopia 183

                   Cataracts 183

                   Visual Acuity Problems 184

                   Blindness 184

                   Visual Agnosias 185

             INTERIM SUMMARY 6.3 185

            NEW DIRECTIONS The Effect of Culture on Perception 186

                   Chapter Review Thought Questions Key Terms 187

     7 Nonvisual Sensation and Perception 188

        Audition 189

                    Sound as a Physical Stimulus 189

                    The Structure and Function of the Auditory System 192

                    Auditory Perception 198

                    Hearing Disorders 200

              INTERIM SUMMARY 7.1 201

        The Body Senses 202

                    The Vestibular System 202

                    Touch 204

                    Temperature 211

                    Pain 212

              INTERIM SUMMARY 7.2 215

        The Chemical Senses 216

                    Olfaction 216

              WHY DOES THIS MATTER? Subliminal Smells and Likeability 217

                    Taste 219

             WHY DOES THIS MATTER? The Pros and Cons of Being a Supertaster 221

             NEW DIRECTIONS Yellow Smoky Voices and Sounds

                    Like Briny Pickles 222

             INTERIM SUMMARY 7.3 222

                    Chapter Review Thought Questions Key Terms 223

     8 Movement 224

        Muscles 225

                    Types of Muscle 225

                    Muscle Anatomy and Contraction 225

              WHY DOES THIS MATTER? Why Do Muscles Get Tired? 228

                    The Effects of Exercise on Muscle 229

                    The Effects of Aging on Muscles 230

                    Sex Differences in Musculature 230

              WHY DOES THIS MATTER? Why Women Win the Prize for

                     Strongest Human Muscle 231

                     The Interaction of Muscles at a Joint 231

        Neural Control of Muscles 232

                     Alpha Motor Neurons 232

                     The Motor Unit 232

                     The Control of Muscle Contractions 232

                     The Control of Spinal Motor Neurons 233

               INTERIM SUMMARY 8.1 235

        Reflex Control of Movement 236

                     Monosynaptic Reflexes 236

                     Polysynaptic Reflexes 236

                     Reflexes over the Life Span 237

        Motor Systems of the Brain 238

                     Spinal Motor Pathways 238

                     The Cerebellum 240

                     The Basal Ganglia 240

                     The Motor Cortex 240

              INTERIM SUMMARY 8.2 244

       Disorders of Movement 245

                     Toxins 245

                    Myasthenia Gravis 245

                    Muscular Dystrophy 246

                    Polio 246

                    Accidental Spinal Cord Damage 246

                    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Lou Gehrig’s Disease) 247

                    Parkinson’s Disease 248

                    Huntington’s Disease 250

                    NEW DIRECTIONS How Much Stronger and Faster Can We Get? 251

              INTERIM SUMMARY 8.3 252

                   Chapter Review Thought Questions Key Terms 253

     9 Temperature Regulation, Thirst, and Hunger 254

        Homeostasis 256

                    Regulation of Body Temperature 256

                    Adaptations to Temperature 257

                    Behavioral Responses to Heat and Cold 258

                    Endothermic Responses to Heat and Cold 258

                    Deviations in Human Core Temperature 259

                    Brain Mechanisms for Temperature Regulation 260

                    Temperature Regulation in Infancy 261

               INTERIM SUMMARY 9.1 262

        Thirst: Regulation of the Body’s Fluid 262

                    Intracellular and Extracellular Fluids 262

                   Osmosis Causes Water to Move 263

                   The Role of the Kidneys 263

                   The Sensation of Thirst 264

                   Mechanisms of Osmotic Thirst 265

                   Mechanisms of Hypovolemic Thirst 266

                   Hormones, Sodium, and Thirst 266

                   The Initiation of Drinking 268

                   Cessation of Drinking 268

             WHY DOES THIS MATTER? When Too Much Fluid Is Not a Good Thing 269

                    Thirst and Sports Drinks 269

             INTERIM SUMMARY 9.2 270

       Hunger: Regulation of the Body’s Nutrients 270

                   The Influence of Culture on Food Choices 270

                   The Process of Digestion 271

                   The Pancreatic Hormones 272

                   The Initiation of Eating 273

                   Satiety 276

       Obesity and Eating Disorders 278

                   Defining Normal Weight 278

                   Obesity 279

            NEW DIRECTIONS Should Obesity Be Considered a Brain Disorder? 279

                   Anorexia Nervosa 280

            WHY DOES THIS MATTER? Does Dieting Work? 281

                   Bulimia Nervosa 281

                   Causes of Anorexia and Bulimia 281

                  Treatments for Eating Disorders 282

            INTERIM SUMMARY 9.3 282

                  Chapter Review Thought Questions Key Terms 283

      10 Sexual Behavior 284

        Sexual Development 285

                    Sex Chromosome Abnormalities 286

                    Three Stages of Prenatal Development 288

                    Development at Puberty 291

               INTERIM SUMMARY 10.1 293

        Hormones and Sexual Behavior 294

                    Regulation of Sex Hormones by the Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland 294

                   The Menstrual Cycle and Female Fertility 294

                   Sex Hormones and Female Behavior 297

              WHY DOES THIS MATTER? The Controversy

                   Over Gender Differences in Cognitive Abilities 298

                   Sex Hormones and Male Behavior 299

                   Anabolic Steroids 300

        Sex Differences in the Nervous System 300

        Sexual Orientation 303

                   Hormones, Sexual Behavior, and Sexual Orientation 303

                   Brain Structure and Sexual Orientation 304

                   Genes and Sexual Orientation 305

               INTERIM SUMMARY 10.2 305

        Attraction 306

                   The Importance of Symmetry 306

                   The Beauty of Fertility and a Good Immune System 306

                   WHY DOES THIS MATTER? Assortative Mating 307

        Romantic Love, Sexual Desire, and Parenting 308

              NEW DIRECTIONS Men, Women, and the Hook-Up 310

        Sexual Dysfunction and Treatment 310

               INTERIM SUMMARY 10.3 311

                    Chapter Review Thought Questions Key Terms 311

     11 Sleep and Waking 312

        Circadian Rhythms 313

                    Variations in Sleep Patterns 314

                    Shift Work, Jet Lag, and Daylight Saving Time 314

                    Internal Clocks 315

              WHY DOES THIS MATTER? Daytime Sleepiness 316

                    The Cellular Basis of Circadian Rhythms 317

                    Biochemistry and Circadian Rhythms 318

             NEW DIRECTIONS Light Pollution 319

                    Seasonal Affective Disorder 319

        Stages of Wakefulness and Sleep 320

                    Wakefulness 321

                     Brain Activity During Sleep 321

        Sleep Throughout the Life Span 323

        Dreaming During REM and NREM 324

              INTERIM SUMMARY 11.1 326

        The Functions of Sleep 327

                    Sleep Keeps Us Safe 327

                    Sleep Restores Our Bodies 327

                    Sleep Helps Us Remember 328

                    Benefits of NREM Sleep 328

                    Benefits of REM Sleep 329

             WHY DOES THIS MATTER? Sleep and Obsesity 329

       Brain Mechanisms of Wakefulness and Sleep 330

                   The Control of Wakefulness 330

                   The Initiation and Control of NREM Sleep 330

                   The Initiation and Control of REM Sleep 331

       The Biochemistry of Wakefulness and Sleep 332

             INTERIM SUMMARY 11.2 334

       Sleep Disorders 334

                    Dyssomnias 334

                    Parasomnias 336

             INTERIM SUMMARY 11.3 338

                    Chapter Review Thought Questions Key Terms 339

     12 Learning and Memory 340

        Learning 341

                    Types of Learning 341

                    Using Invertebrates to Study Learning 342

              WHY DOES THIS MATTER? The Cost of Learning 347

                    Classical Conditioning in Vertebrates 348

              INTERIM SUMMARY 12.1 352

        Memory 352

                     Types of Memory 352

                     Brain Mechanisms in Memory 354

               WHY DOES THIS MATTER? Can We Make Ourselves Smarter? 361

                     Biochemical Factors in Long-Term Memory 366

                     The Effects of Stress on Memory 368

                     Aging and Memory 370

               NEW DIRECTIONS Can We Prevent Age-Related Memory Loss? 371

               INTERIM SUMMARY 12.2 372

                     Chapter Review Thought Questions Key Terms 373

     13 Lateralization, Language, and Intelligence 374

         Lateralization of Function 376

                    Hemispherectomy 376

                    The Split Brain 377

                    The Development of Lateralization 379

                    Implications of Hemispheric Asymmetry for Behavior 380

                WHY DOES THIS MATTER? Why Do We Have a Preferred Hand? 381

                INTERIM SUMMARY 13.1 384

         Language 384

                    The Origins of Language 384

               NEW DIRECTIONS Lateralization, Language, and Schizophrenia 386

                     Are Nonhuman Animals Capable of Real Language? 387

                     Multilingualism 388

                     American Sign Language 389

         Communication Disorders and Brain Mechanisms for
         Language 389

                    Paul Broca and Patient Tan 389

                    Aphasias 390

                    Disorders of Reading and Writing 393

                    Stuttering 396

               INTERIM SUMMARY 13.2 396

        Intelligence 397

                    Assessing Intelligence 397

                    General or Specific Abilities 397

              WHY DOES THIS MATTER? Enhancing Intellect 398

                    Intelligence and Genetics 398

                    Biological Correlates of Intelligence 399

               INTERIM SUMMARY 13.3 400

                    Chapter Review Thought Questions 400

                    Key Terms 401

     14 Emotion, Reward, Aggression, and Stress 402

         Emotion 403

                    The Evolution of Emotion 403

                    Expression and Recognition of Emotion 403

                    Theories of Emotion 408

               WHY DOES THIS MATTER? Anger Management 411

                    Biological Correlates of Emotion 413

              NEW DIRECTIONS Recognition of Facial Expression and

                    Psychopathology 416

              INTERIM SUMMARY 14.1 418

        Pleasure and Reward 419

                    The Mesolimbic System 419

                    Reward, Decision-Making, and the Cortex 420

        Aggression and Violence 421

                   Genetics and Aggression 421

                   Brain Structures and Aggression 421

                   Biochemistry and Aggression 423

             WHY DOES THIS MATTER? Brain Damage and the Criminal Justice System 423

       Stress 425

                   Hans Selye and the General Adaptation Syndrome 425

                   Physical and Psychological Responses to Stress 426

                   Stress, the Immune System, and Health 427

            INTERIM SUMMARY 14.2 428

                   Chapter Review Thought Questions Key terms 429

     15 Neurological Disorders 430

       Brain Damage 431

                    Stroke 431

                    Head Injuries 433

                    Brain Tumors 434

            WHY DOES THIS MATTER? Athletes and Post-Concussive Syndrome:
            When Is It Safe to Play?
435

                    Seizures and Epilepsy 436

             INTERIM SUMMARY 15.1 439

       Multiple Sclerosis 439

       Brain Infections 440

                    Parasites 440

                    Bacterial, Viral, and Fungal Infections 441

                    Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs) 443

       Migraine 447

             INTERIM SUMMARY 15.2 448

       Assessment of Neurological Disorders 449

           WHY DOES THIS MATTER? What Is a Neuropsychologist? 450

       Recovery from Damage 451

       Therapy for Brain Damage 452

                     Rehabilitation 452

             NEW DIRECTIONS Using Virtual Reality (VR) for Rehabilitation Following Brain Injury 453

                     Pharmacological Therapies 453

                     Neural Tissue Transplants 453

             INTERIM SUMMARY 15.3 454

                     Chapter Review Thought Questions Key Terms 455

     16 Psychological Disorders 456

       Schizophrenia 457

                    Genetics of Schizophrenia 458

                    Environmental Contributions to Schizophrenia 460

                    Brain Structure and Function in Schizophrenia 460

                    Biochemistry of Schizophrenia 462

                    Treatment of Schizophrenia 464

             INTERIM SUMMARY 16.1 466

       Mood Disorders 466

                    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) 466

                    Bipolar Disorder 471

            INTERIM SUMMARY 16.2 473

       Anxiety Disorders 473

                    Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder 474

                    Panic Disorder 475

                    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder 475

            WHY DOES THIS MATTER? Understanding Self-Injury 476

       Autism 476

                    Causes of Autism 477

                    Brain Structure and Function in Autism 477

                    Biochemistry and Treatment of Autism 478

       Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder 478

                   Genetics of ADHD 478

                   Brain Structure and Function in ADHD 479

                   Biochemistry and Treatment of ADHD 479

            WHY DOES THIS MATTER? Are There “Steroids” for the Mind? 480

       Antisocial Personality Disorder 480

                   Genetics of Antisocial Personality Disorder 480

                   Brain Structure and Function in Antisocial Personality Disorder 481

                   Treatment of Antisocial Personality Disorder 482

           NEW DIRECTIONS Epigenetics and Psychopathology 482

           INTERIM SUMMARY 16.3 483

                   Chapter Review Thought Questions Key Terms 483

 

 

     Reference R-1

     Name Index I-1

     Subject Index I-10

 

 

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